Brain Tumor

What Is Brain Tumor ?

When abnormal cells divide uncontrollably a tumor forms. A tumor in the brain can be benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Brain tumor can be classified as primary or secondary

Primary braintumours : they originate in the brain. Secondary Brain Tumor: also known as metastatic cancer or brain metastases is a cancerous tumor. The majority of brain cancer are metastatic. Meaning they start somewhere else in the body and spread to the brain.

Primary Brain Tumor

A primary brain tumor is a tumor that starts in the brain. A primary brain tumor is often described as "low grade" or "high grade." a low-grade tumor generally grows slowly, but it can turn into a high-grade tumor. A high-grade tumor is more likely to grow faster.

There are many types of primary braintumors. As a group, gliomas are one of the most common types of braintumors.

The Types Of Gliomas Include

  • Astrocytoma is the most common type of glioma.
  • Oligodendroglioma They are categorized as either oligodendroglioma, which is considered low grade, or anaplastic oligodendroglioma, which is a high-grade tumor.
  • Ependymoma This commonly begins in the passageways in the Brain where CSF is made and stored.
  • Brain stem gliomaA Brain stem glioma begins in the glial cells in the Brain stem.
  • Non-glioma Tumors are Tumors that arise from cells in the Brain that are not glial cells.

Types Of Non-Glioma Tumor Include:

  • Meningioma is the most common primary Brain tumor.
  • Pineal gland and pituitary gland Tumors These are Tumors that start in the pineal gland and pituitary gland.
  • Primary CNS lymphoma This is a form of lymphoma. Lymphoma is a Cancer that begins in the lymphatic system. Primary CNS Lymphoma starts in the Brain and can spread to the spinal fluid and eyes.
  • Medulloblastoma It is most common in children and is usually Cancerous, often spreading throughout the CNS.
  • Craniopharyngioma is a rare benign tumor that begins near the pituitary gland located near the base of theBrain.
  • Schwannoma is a rare tumor that begins in the nerve sheath, or the lining of the nerves. It is typically non-Cancerous.

Secondary Brain Tumor

A secondary brain tumor also known as metastatic cancer or brain metastases is a cancerous tumor.this starts in another part of the body, such as the breast, lung, or colon, and then spreads to the brain. If cancer spreads to the meninges and the cerebrospinal fluid (csf), it is called leptomeningeal metastases or neoplastic meningitis. This condition occurs more commonly in people with leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma, breast cancer, or lung cancer.

Brain tumor are more common in children and older adults,

Symptoms Of Brain Tumor

Symptoms can vary depending on the part of the brain that’s involved

“General symptoms include persistent and worsening headaches, new development of seizures or new onset of neurological problems that could mimic a stroke

Other symptoms could include but are not limited to:

  • Seizures
  • Vision problems
  • Changes in personality, behavior or mood
  • Changes in speech or hearing
  • Dizziness
  • Difficulty with walking or movement
  • Numbness or tingling
  • Weakness

How is a brain tumor diagnosed?

A series of tests would be required to diagnose suspected braintumors. Initially, a complete physical and neurological exam. This includes simple tests—like assessments of motor skills and senses—that may help to identify the part of the brain or cns that’s involved. Next comes the diagnostic images most commonly MRI or CT scan, the imaging is used to locate the tumor, its size and effect on surrounding tissue.

Tissue sampling/biopsy/surgical removal of a tumor. A sample of the tumor’s tissue is usually needed to make a final diagnosis. A biopsy is the removal of a small amount of tissue for examination under a microscope and is the only definitive way a brain tumor can be diagnosed.

Treatment Of Brain Tumour

Treatment options and recommendations depend on several factors like the size, type, and grade of the tumor, whether the tumor is putting pressure on vital parts of the brain, if the tumor has spread to other parts of the cns or body, the patient’s preferences and overall health.

Surgery is often the first line of treatment for benign tumors, primary malignant tumors and large metastatic cancer that are causing symptoms or compressing surrounding brain tissues. Removing the tumor can improve neurological symptoms, provide tissue for diagnosis and genetic analysis, help make other brain tumor treatments more effective, and, in many instances, improve the prognosis of a person with a brain tumor.

Following surgery, patients are treated with radiation therapy. For small metastases that are found before symptoms start to show, stereotactic radiosurgery (srs-radiotherapy) is usually the only treatment needed. For high grade glioma along with radiation therapy oral chemotherapy drugs are also given. Chemotherapy to treat a brain tumor is typically given after surgery and possibly with or after radiation therapy, particularly if the tumor has come back after initial treatment.